*Disorders Usually First Diagnosed in Infancy, Childhood, or Adolescence
Following are the main categories of *Disorders Usually First Diagnosed in Infancy, Childhood, or Adolescence according to the DSM, along with most of the specific subtypes of disorders in each.
Learning Disorders – reading (e.g., dyslexia), mathematics (e.g., dyscalculia), and written expression
Motor Skills Disorders –developmental coordination, expressive language, mixed receptive-expressive language, phonological, and stuttering
- Pervasive Developmental Disorders – autistic, Rett’s, childhood disintegrative, Asperger’s, conduct, oppositional defiant, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
- Feeding and Eating Disorders – pica, rumination, and feeding
- Tic Disorders – Tourette’s, chronic motor or vocal tic, and transient tic
- Elimination Disorders – encopresis and enuresis
- Other Disorders of Infancy, Childhood, and Adolescence – separation anxiety, selective mutism, stereotypic movement, and reactive attachment
In some of these disorders, the main etiological factor is genetics; in others, it seems to be environment, parenting, or even gross negligence in care. The most common intrauterine causes of mental retardation are fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), asphyxia, and intrauterine infections. The most common post-uterine causes of mental retardation are meningitis, head trauma, anoxia, and encephalitis.