Adolescent Substance Use, Brain Development and Treatment

Adolescent Substance Use, Brain Development, and Psychotherapeutic Change

Adolescence is a critical developmental period that is often associated with behavioral risk-taking and substance use. The prevalence of substance use increases significantly from early to late adolescence and peaks during the transition to adulthood (SAMHSA, 2011). Alcohol use rates increase from 29% to 65% between 8th grade and 12th grade, and similarly illicit drug use increases from 16% to 38% (Johnston, O’Malley, Bachman, & Schulenberg, 2010).

Non-Suicidal Self-Injury and Its Treatment


Non-suicidal self-injury is the direct and deliberate destruction of one’s own body tissue without the intent to die (Lloyd-Richardson, Perrine, Dierker, & Kelley, 2007). Unfortunately, self-injury is a pervasive and dangerous problem among adolescents. The average age of onset for self-injury is 12 years old, however, it has been reported in children as young as 6 years old (Nock & Prinstein, 2004). Even though self-injury often starts in childhood/adolescence, it often persists into adulthood as well.

Ten Psychological Problems Best Treated by Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT)

10 Psychological Problems Best Treated by Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT)

CBT (Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy) refers to the combination of cognitive and behavioral therapies and has strong empirical support for the treatment of many psychological disorders. The basic premise of CBT is that negative emotions cannot be changed directly, therefore it targets thoughts and behaviors that are contributing to distressing emotions.



In modern day work environments organizations often require their employees to be proactive, show initiative, collaborate effectively with co-workers, be committed to professional development, and pursue high quality performance standards (Bakker & Schaufeli, 2008). With the recent economic recession, downsizings and restructurings, and increased job insecurity for a lot of people, employees often want to invest increasing amount of time and effort into their work (Selmer & Waldstrom, 2007).

Strategies for Parents with Anxious Children

Strategies for Parents with Anxious Children

Childhood Anxiety and Symptoms

Imagine the following scenario. Your daughter, Grace, is complaining of a stomach ache in the morning. She seems down and she had trouble sleeping the night before. You check her temperature and everything seems normal. She is not physically ill. And since this has been happening since the beginning of the school year two weeks ago, you suspect that Grace has anxiety.

Psychological Treatment of Eating Disorders - Bulimia Nervosa and Binge Eating Disorder

Psychological Treatment of Eating Disorders – part II 

Bulimia Nervosa

Bulimia nervosa is characterized by recurrent binge eating (uncontrolled consumption of large amounts of food), compensatory behaviors to control weight gain (vomiting, laxative abuse, over-exercising), and negative self-evaluation that is unduly determined by body shape and weight. Individuals with bulimia diet in a rigid and dysfunctional manner. Their body weight is usually normal or low, however, bulimia can also occur in overweight individuals. Bulimia is associated with other psychiatric problems such as depression, anxiety, and personality disorders as well as psychosocial impairment.

Acceptance and Commitment Therapy - Part II of II

Acceptance and Commitment Therapy – Part II of II

Self as Context

The concept of observing self or self as context refers to the perception of a universal self that is detached from behaviors and private experiences. It is the viewpoint from which we view our inner experiences (Hayes et al., 2006). It is simply the recognition of a self that notices everything else. Understanding the presence of an observing self is very helpful for clients; as it helps them realize that they exist separate from their actions or experiences.

A New Effective Approach to Pursuing Happiness

A New Effective Approach to Pursuing Happiness

Whether the pursuit of happiness leads to actual happiness or whether it backfires has been debated for a long time. However, it seems that almost everyone, independently of their nationality or culture, wants to be happy (Diener, Saptya, & Suh, 1998). Research does confirm the benefits of happiness for mental and physical health (Steptoe, Dockray, & Wardle, 2009). Positive emotions predict higher quality relationships, improved physical health, and better work performance (Lyubomirsky et al., 2005).



Cyber-bullying has been defined as the “intentional and overt act of aggression toward another person online” (Ybarra & Mitchell, 2004) and includes “harassment and bullying that occurs through email, chat, instant messaging, websites (blogs included), text messaging, videos or pictures posted on websites or sent through cell phones” (David-Ferdon & Hertz, 2009). Cyber-bullying a relatively new form of peer aggression and is not yet well understood in terms of its underlying risk and protective factors. Even though cyber-bullying occurs less often than traditional or non-electronic forms of bullying, it is occurring at problematic levels (Wang, Ianotti, & Nansel, 2009).

Adult ADHD Treatment

Psychotherapy for Adult ADHD

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a relatively common neurobiological disorder of childhood that often has long-term effects on behavior, learning, cognition, and emotional functioning (Brown, 2000). ADHD affects about 3-5% of school-aged children (APA, 2000), and the prevalence in adults is estimated to be around 4-5%. As many as 50-70% of children with ADHD continue to experience clinically significant symptoms in adulthood.